Tackling the Problem at Source

Article on Responsible Sourcing for UK-GBC supplement ‘Building for the Future’, published in The Times, 6 September, 2010

 

Contracts a-changing: £7M iCon building in Daventry is the first completed using new sustainability guidance introduced by the Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT).

As well as being complicit in acts contributing to global warming and water poverty, plus exploitation and waste of natural resources, could you also be guilty of environmental discrimination and exporting pollution, plus human rights abuses including benefiting from child labour? Are you personally and professionally responsible?

Failure to ensure responsible sourcing of products, goods, services and materials for specification and procurement on the part of a decision maker in the construction industry could leave that person answerable on all counts. Some wrongdoings are more likely to result in accusations of engendering economic greed, environmental harm and anti-social behaviour, than actual charges on legal, ethical or moral grounds, but all are effectively crimes against sustainability. All are bad for business. Most are, however, commonplace. So, what is Construction doing to clean up its act?

 

Well, to manage it, first you have to measure it. Sadly, this is not as straightforward as it sounds, even for resource use and efficiency.

London 2012 set out to be “the most sustainable Games ever”, with targets and objectives that are unprecedented for major construction projects, driving forward innovation. Do the Games showcase the industry’s thorough understanding of its resource impacts? Unfortunately they do not, as Shaun McCarthy, Chair of the Commission for a Sustainable London 2012, frankly explains: “The discovery that 67 per cent of the 3.4Mt carbon footprint for the Games is embodied in construction was a shock and a revelation. I was also surprised to see that the Aquatic Centre has three times the embodied energy of the Velodrome. The construction industry does not know how to manage embodied impacts and the UK sustainable construction strategy is silent on the subject.”

In response to the industry’s obvious frustrations with traditional evaluation tools, a new methodology called Carbon Profiling has been developed by Sturgis Associates, combining both operational and embodied carbon emissions. On Ropemaker Place, a recent case-study project in London, profiling showed that over half of the building’s CO2e impacts are attributable to embodied carbon.

So, does quantifying embodied energy and embedded carbon hold the key to unlocking the secrets of energy-responsible construction? No, it does not, according to Dr Miles Watkins, Director of Sustainable Construction, at Aggregate Industries Europe, who argues for an altogether more joined-up assessment: “Embedded carbon in isolation is not really that helpful. Performance of materials in use has to be taken into account. It is simply not sustainable to build a building with the lowest embedded carbon possible and then have to add crazy levels of renewable bling to make it work properly.”

Standards and Labels

Whilst the industry grapples with assessment methods and  measures for energy and carbon, other formal standards and sector-wide initiatives abound.

Construction contracts themselves are changing: The £7M iCon building in Daventry is the first project completed using the sustainability guidance newly introduced by the Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT). British Standards are also multiplying: In addition to the existing BS 8902 for Responsible Sourcing, this autumn will see the launch of a brand new standard for Sustainable Procurement, BS 8903.

On the materials front, representative bodies are addressing issues of responsible sourcing. The concrete sector, as well as working to ambitious 2012 waste targets, has warmly embraced the requirements of the BRE standard BES 6001 for Responsible Sourcing of Construction Products. The Steel Construction Sustainability Charter, as advocated by the British Constructional Steelwork Association (BCSA), operates to objectives of economic viability, social progress and environmental responsibility. Plus, for timber, long-touted as the only truly carbon-neutral (or better) building material, advanced certification systems have been developed, involving chain-of-custody standards, plus product labelling, lead by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). These have helped distinguish the sustainable from the merely legal, with the prospect of further EU legislation on due diligence set to raise the bar still higher.

In addition, mainstreaming of natural and renewable building materials, featuring use of such as hemp, straw and lime to provide low-impact construction methods, is rapidly expanding the range and application of responsible solutions.

Ethics and Social Responsibility

Less responsible sourcing of products and materials from parts of the world where emissions targets may be more lenient (creating so-called ‘carbon leakage’), pollution more poorly policed and resource depletion more tolerated, often causes harm and creates risk indirectly, as a seemingly faceless crime. Sourcing that carries a direct cost to human life and wellbeing is different.

Ethical supply chain management is not, however, easy. In 2007, hard landscaping company Marshalls was the first in its sector to become a member of the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), but says initially, the company had met with a lot of resistance and cynicism about the serious issues facing the stone industry in India. Group Marketing Director, Chris Harrop says: “So many disputed the fact that child labour was still in existence. It was only by being in India we saw it for ourselves, and decided to do something about it.”

Responsibility as Opportunity

Whilst details may be complex and sometimes conflicting, the business case for responsible sourcing is nevertheless clear. Or, at least it is to clients, as Diane Booth, Head of Environmental Policy at Network Rail, explains: “Once baselines and the cost/benefit are well understood, it is relatively easy to design specifications and contractual incentives to drive improvement. However, gaining detailed understanding of the opportunity can only be done in conjunction with contractors and suppliers, some of whom seem reluctant to engage. They are not seeing this as a differentiating factor, when clients do.”

In short, for Construction, the future is lean, green and responsible, as Paul Toyne, Head of Sustainability at Bovis Lend Lease, concludes: “The age of austerity could become the age of sustainability as both are about efficient resource use, which if we get it right allows the industry to offer affordable solutions, here in the UK and abroad. Companies need to position themselves ready for the upturn in the market.”

To view the full Supplement online, please click here.

Author: Jim McClelland

Portugal: The Harvest of the Cork

Nowhere on the planet is cork in more bountiful supply than Portugal, where the Alentejo Region is home to the largest proliferation of cork oak trees in the world. Ecologically, cork forests absorb carbon dioxide on a significant scale, assisting in reducing the impact of carbon emissions and other greenhouse gasses. Furthermore, the cultivation and management of these vast cork forests over hundreds of years has allowed a uniquely rich and varied eco-system to develop, preserving the habitats of a number of endangered species, some found only on the Iberian peninsular.

In combination, stewardship of the forests and harvesting of the cork serve both to maintain the cultural and farming traditions of the region and provide opportunities for local employment in rural communities – an all-round win-win for the agri-business sector in terms of both social and economic sustainability.

The harvesting of the Cork in Portugal: Hand-held axe, rare skill, brute force in searing heat – remarkable!

The actual harvesting of the cork really is something to see: Speed, strength and consummate skill combine on the part of the local labour employed to reveal the warm, honey-rich colour and natural beauty of the tree beneath the bark. The reveal is simply quite remarkable and completely renewable – each tree can be reharvested every 9 years.

The material is a thing of Nature, a product of ecology, geography and climate. The country crowned King of Cork is undoubtedly Portugal, with some 60 million trees and 54% of all global production. Accordingly, there is no wonder that a passionate life-long specialist such as Carlos Manuel, General Manager of leading cork producer Amorim Isolamentos, is as proud and protective of the provenance of his Portuguese cork, as a vintner of his vines. Which, as it happens, brings to mind another great use for cork . . .

Cork in construction

Picture this specification on the ‘Solutions Wanted’ list for a sustainable refurb scheme:-

• Insulation – must be based on a material with biodiversity benefits built in, plus zero ozone depletion / global warming potential, that is also 100 per cent natural, renewable and recyclable;

• In addition to strong environmental characteristics, it should boast positive attributes in terms of both social and economic sustainability.

Now at this point, a hardened eco-cynic might imagine that this is simply too much to ask of an insulation product or system – after all, material of that kind doesn’t exactly grow on trees. Wrong. Actually, it does. It does quite literally grow on trees, because the material in question is cork.

An organic, lightweight material with a cellular structure, cork is a natural insulator. No chemicals or additives are used in the manufacture of cork for use as an insulant and very low amounts of energy consumed by the manufacturing process. Thermally stable, fire resistant, durable and rot-proof, with relatively low embodied energy., good acoustic and airtightness properties, cork insulation is designated an A+ rating in the Green Guide to Specification, for maximum benefit in BREEAM and Code for Sustainable Homes assessments.

Footnote: Swistherm with Cork

Cork is ideally suited for use in External Wall Insulation (EWI) systems, with the typical components for such as the Alumasc Swistherm with Cork system being:-

1. Solid blockwork substrate;

2. ST1 Composite Mortar used as bedding adhesive;

3. High density Cork insulation slab;

4. ST1 Composite Mortar used as a reinforcing layer;

5. Glassfibre reinforcement mesh bedded into top third of ST1 Composite Mortar;

6. ST Render Primer to match silicone topcoat colour;

7. ST Silicone Render decorative finish in a range of colours and textures.

Swistherm with Cork can be used extensively on both new build and remodelling projects. Cork is also suitable for use with Alumasc’s Swisslab, Swisspan and Swisrail insulated render systems. For further information on Alumasc products and systems, please click here.

The Editor of sustain’, Jim McClelland, travelled to Portugal as a guest of Alumasc, whom sustain’ would very much like to thank for their warm hospitality.

All flight travel was carbon offset.

Author: Jim McClelland

A True Measure of Performance?

Article on Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) for UK-GBC supplement ‘Building for the Future’, published in The Times, 22 September, 2009

In much the same way as GCSEs are intended both to drive academic performance across the Education sector as a whole and inspire effort and achievement in individuals, so should EPCs (and DECs) raise standards in Property and Construction and deliver better buildings and dwellings. Certification in theory is the answer, but the question is, will it work in practice?

No vision for a low-carbon economy can carry any credibility without strategies in place for delivering on aspirations for CO2 reduction and energy efficiency in the built environment. The process of turning such aspirations into achievements calls for targets to be first set, then met. So, how do we measure success?
One simple solution is to award grades in recognition of levels of achievement and performance, operating a comparative assessment and rating system.
Introduced as part of the European Performance of Buildings Directive, an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is now required when any building (over 50sq m) is sold, rented out or constructed, and in some cases following refurbishment. EPCs rate properties on a descending sliding scale from A to G and come complete with a Recommendation Report. Only qualified and accredited energy assessors or certified home inspectors can produce EPCs, which also form an essential part of the Home Information Pack (HIP) for domestic properties marketed for sale. In addition, certain public buildings must have a Display Energy Certificate (DEC) on show.
“Of course, Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) should help improve compliance with buildings regulations”, acknowledges Dr Martin Gibson, Director of Government-approved provider of energy-assessor software, BuildDesk. “The theory is that people will start to make use of the EPCs in their buying decisions and though there doesn’t seem to be much evidence of this yet, it is still early days.
“I remember the early days of energy labels on white goods and it took a few years before people started to shy away from lower grades. However, the market for white goods has now been transformed and it is hard to buy anything worse than an appliance rated A or B. Who, after all, wants to admit to buying second best?”
Establishing the value of excellence in energy performance of commercial buildings and demonstrating benefits to owners and occupiers is vital to stimulating demand for certification and driving up standards. The accompanying Recommendation Report is arguably the most important part of an EPC, laying the foundations for ongoing improvement. It is however all too often ignored once the lowest-cost base rating is safely in the bag. If the scheme is to operate effectively going forward, buy-in on the part of clients is key, as Terry Dix, Director at Arup, explains:
“EPCs are only an effective measure for new buildings and even then only if clients set ambitious targets by doing more than getting a simple pass – in other words, more than just complying with minimum legal standards.”
Certification costs both time and money and clients need to be confident the effort is worth it. Seeking to sweat physical assets harder, corporate property owners and developers will be looking to EPCs to satisfy the demands of two audiences: one upstream, made up of investors and perhaps pension funds; the other, downstream, comprising letting agents and tenants. Badly performing buildings are hard to let and uncomfortable to occupy. They represent an unattractive prospect from both perspectives: Mergers and Acquisitions teams do not like liabilities on the balance sheet in the shape of unsaleable and unlettable property; tenants are concerned about committing to bottom-line cost impacts over time. Futureproofing against excessive utilities bills is good news for everyone, as is the promise of an indoor working environment that is conducive to staff health and wellbeing, minimising levels of absenteeism, maximising output.
There is a virtuous spiral in play here: Happy tenants make for happy owners and happy investors. When all are talking commercial building performance, certification is the common language. At present, though, there remains a sales job to be done for the metrics.
Selling the benefits of certification to developers and owners is an issue In the residential sector too. Amongst consumers in general, there is growing awareness of the advantages of labelling. With developers, homeowners and landlords, however, there is a need to establish a more positive attitude towards enhanced (re)sale and rental returns, based on strong certification ratings, consolidating and raising demand on the part of the prospective buyer or tenant. Achieving higher levels of energy performance in dwellings needs to be communicated as a matter of investment, not cost, as Chief Executive of the Energy Saving Trust, Philip Sellwood explains:
“We know that people are going to be looking to rent out places that are cheaper to run – it’s hardly rocket science. A poorly insulated three-bedroom semi-detached house could move from band F to C saving a tenant £700 a year on energy bills if the landlord installed straightforward energy-saving measures like insulation.
“There is no good reason for landlords to pass the cost of upgrading a property to meet energy efficient criteria to their tenants – there is financial support available which can help recoup any financial outlay involved.
“We urge all landlords to see this new legislation as an opportunity not a challenge. All the evidence points to the fact that an energy-efficient home will be much more appealing to prospective tenants.”
One thing is certain: There is no shortage of qualified and accredited assessors. Government targets for professional numbers have been exceeded several times over, with initial fears of a shortfall in personnel proving quite unfounded. A whole army of energy performance troops has effectively been enlisted in the fight for carbon reduction and energy efficiency in buildings. As the government wages war on Climate Change, it is the frontline battle for the hearts and minds of clients, owners and developers that still remains to be won.

To view the full Supplement online, please click here.

Author: Jim McClelland

Waging War on Carbon

Article on Zero-Carbon New Buildings for ‘Smart Energy Management’ supplement, published in The Times, 15 September, 2009

In terms of property-related impacts and emissions, Great Britain is effectively at war with Carbon. The offensive started in earnest back in July 2007, with the announcement of a Government proposal for all new homes to be required to be ‘Zero Carbon’ from 2016. Following on from this initial assault on housing, co-ordinated campaigns have been launched to target non-residential buildings with zero-carbon compliance by 2019, plus an accelerated programme for both Education (2016) and public-sector property (2018).

As the target compliance dates for all building types fall within the Government’s critical first period to 2020 of its climate change strategy for overall emissions reduction, the spotlight will undoubtedly focus on success or failure in these areas.

So what exactly is the construction and property sector tasked with doing and what has been the response to the challenge?

Not surprisingly, much of the debate has centred around the precise definition of net zero-carbon emissions. In order to balance the zero-sum books, what exactly is allowable in the ‘credit’ column, to offset the ‘debit’ figure generated by the calculated carbon emissions of a property. In response, policy documents have set out a three-part hierarchy of achievement needs for zero-carbon design and development:

• In first place are the requirements for very high standards of energy efficiency in design, specification and construction;

• Secondly, carrying the most concern regarding cost implications, comes the call for carbon compliance in terms of on-site generation of renewable energy;

• Thirdly, provoking perhaps the most discussion, appears the potential for provision of other off-site measures and allowable solutions – only permitted almost as an conditional option of last resort, on the basis of credits earned in respect of achievement in the other two areas of primary and secondary need.

The key associated piece of building regulation is the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH), now a mandatory requirement for all new housing in England and adopted into minimum standards in both Wales and Northern Ireland. Sustainability is assessed across nine design categories, resulting in Code star ratings ranging from the lowest Level 1, through to the highest Level 6 for Zero Carbon.

In response, there have undoubtedly been dissenting voices, with architects, housing developers and engineers in some quarters branding the proposals high risk and unrealistic. Some have accused the government of expecting too much too soon, in hoping for widespread achievement of CSH Level 6. Others have complained of there being too little in the pot, in terms of investment in both technology and skills. Doubts about financial viability have inevitably been raised in more minds as a result of the recent deterioration in economic conditions.

Overall, there remains though a strong body of industry support amongst leading players who welcome the policy framework and regulatory roadmap that have been born out of the vision of de-carbonising Britain. The agenda is gaining not only acceptance, but real momentum, albeit with some reservations, as Chief Executive of leading built environment consultancy Inbuilt, Professor David Strong explains:

“The drive towards zero carbon is very important – it has had a powerful effect in galvanising the UK housebuilding and property development community and in stimulating innovation. This may not have happened without such a strong legislative and policy initiative. A growing number of major housebuilders have a broad plan of how they are going to meet the Government’s zero-carbon targets and the intermediate stages planned for the 2010 and 2013 Building Regulations. The housebuilding industry is generally now more positive about delivering higher environmental standards than it was in the past. However, many are concerned about the cost of compliance and the potential liabilities and risks associated with the new standards.”

Zero-carbon aspirations are also considered both a driver and a differentiator of design excellence, with some architectural practices keen not to see the bar lowered too hastily, nor to have the issues taken out of their proper context of sustainable design. Alan Shingler, of Sheppard Robson, Architects of the UK’s first net zero-carbon home built to Level 6, The Lighthouse, advocates staying faithful to a big-picture vision of Sustainability:

“The Code for Sustainable Homes is likely to allow some off-site renewable power generation. Whilst we welcome the overall approach, we believe that the proposed legislative framework should not be allowed to confuse or dilute true zero-carbon development which takes a holistic approach to sustainability including embodied energy, social and economic longevity, as well as environment and carbon reduction.”

Nobody is pretending it will be easy and for developers and investors working with relatively long lead-in times and extended project calendars, it is vital that government provides both the strategic vision and leadership needed, but also builds in sufficient flexibility and room for manoeuvre.

As a key member of the newly-formed Carbon Consensus group, Claudine Blamey, Head of Sustainability at property investment and development company Segro, calls for more joined-up working between government and business:

“The government has to see their role as strategic planners in order to set the scene for business to deliver a zero-carbon economy in the most efficient way possible. The property industry then needs to be given flexibility to utilise the full-range of renewable energy solutions (i.e. on-site, near-site and off-site) in order to maximise carbon-emissions reductions. Furthermore, the capacity of renewable to deliver savings will change over time, as technologies become more viable.”

Sustainable development by definition calls for adaptability and whilst zero carbon might be the agreed target destination, the route map is being re-drawn on a regular basis. The challenge for both the property market and the construction industry is to continue to deliver on contractual project objectives, whilst operating within this evolving policy and regulatory framework. Living with this state of flux is the zero-carbon business challenge.

To view the full Supplement online, please click here.

Author: Jim McClelland

City Guide: Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Toronto, the State capital and University city, lies unfolding on the northern edge of the impossibly large Lake Ontario (with a shoreline some 1146km long, officially one of the five Great Lakes of North America), providing many a tourist with a flight destination and base for that essential day trip to the splendour of Niagara Falls.

The vibe is relaxed, the residents courteous and friendly, with the ethnic mix giving rise to a culturally diverse and relatively cosmopolitan modern city. Famous for the iconic CN tower – at 533m, the world’s tallest freestanding structure, complete with viewing platforms, glass floor panel and cityscape-vista restaurants – Toronto offers visitors upmarket hotels, abundant retail therapy, chic bistros and bars, plus the alternative, slightly edgy, hint-of-Amsterdam-meets-Soho element more evident along parts of Yonge St – one stretch of the 1896km thoroughfare, on record as the longest street in the world.

As for the weather… well, the simplest (semi-serious) description of the Ontario climate states that in Toronto there are effectively only two seasons: Winter and Construction. Why? Temperatures down as low as -4degC/-24deg F, that’s why!

Economic Overview

Adorning the walls inside the former Toronto Stock Exchange building – now home to the National Design Museum – are a pair of Art Moderne murals by the artist Charles Comfort, one at each end of the large column-free trading-floor space that was once alive with the buzz of share-price wheeling and dealing.

The four panels of each mural (along with a frieze to the exterior) depict the principal commercial interests of the region: Pulp & Paper; Agriculture; Mining; Construction & Engineering; Refining; Transportation & Communication; Oil; and Smelting.

That was 1937. Today, whilst still heavily committed in some of the same industrial sectors – Motor Vehicles & Parts represent 36% of exports and 22% of imports –  Ontario boasts a GDP on a par with that of a not-so-small European country, in fact placing it on the scale between Belgium and Poland. As a desirable Business Environment, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked it up alongside Finland, Singapore Denmark & Switzerland, slightly above the US, UK Netherlands & Hong Kong.

By contrast, on the Cost of living Index (devised by Mercer Human Resources), where New York provides the pivotal benchmark score of 100 points, Toronto comes in at a mere 78.8 – considerably easier on the resident’s pocket than those cities towards the top of the list, such as Paris, Tokyo and at the very summit of unaffordability, scoring a staggering 126.3. . . London.

The ongoing transition away from the more labour-intensive manufacturing sector, typical of advanced Western economies, has seen a slight decoupling of late of GDP and employment. In response a CD1.15bn investment in the Next Generation of Jobs Fund looks to stimulate and balance labour growth patterns.

Environment & Green Business Sectors

In the Environment Sector, there is a shift in focus away from end-of-pipe activities to upstream at-source pollution prevention strategies. The sector is promoted as enabling and a solutions provider. Whilst mainstreaming of Sustainability matters has brought market and business consolidation, vertical integration and domino-effect trends in green procurement, much of the sector remains SME-based, with more SMEs constantly arriving to offset the hulking presence of the likes of major players such as GE-Zenon.

In general, the challenge to develop the connectivity in the sector remains the same, with any real change described as needing ‘a paradigm shift’. The key exception is perhaps to be found in the boom over the last three years in the market for Brownfield remediation and development solutions. Greenbelt planning restrictions have sharply accelerated this trend, contributing to a growth scenario reminiscent of the pattern emerging in the UK around a decade ago.

Key Development Case Studies

Case Study 1: The Distillery District

A mixed-use redevelopment project, based around what was once the largest distillery in the British Empire, provides for a hip cultural quarter, an “urban park”, comprising an Arts Centre, high-end galleries and retail destination, plus fashionable bars and eateries.

At a site where the key architectural structures date back to 1832 (the birth year of Toronto itself being only 1792), building conservation – described as “‘adaptive reuse’, with a ‘green twist’“ – has proved pivotal to the plan. With only one building in 47 ultimately unable to be saved from demolition, the success in preserving elements of this historical past is evidenced everywhere, not least thanks to extensive timber re-use and recycling, to create all restaurant furniture and some windows.

Looking ahead, the two new residential towers also proposed for the site feature energy-efficiency principles at the heart of the design concept. In addition, the development team is currently working with Toronto Hydro to design a state-of-the-art District cogeneration plant.

Case Study 2: Toronto Waterfront

The aspirational signature style for the Waterfront scheme as a whole is pretty much exemplified by the choice of presenter for the project’s promotional video: leading poster-boy of the resident intelligentsia, Professor at the University of Toronto and celebrated author of “The Rise of the Creative Class”, Richard Florida.

An ambitious mixed-use vision, described as seeking to develop the ‘best and brightest wellspring of intellectual capital’, the regeneration scheme for  Toronto Waterfront champions design excellence, with policies for LEED Gold standard and the mandating of Green Roofs. In addition, its ‘Infrastructure-first’ strategy, has meant that of the CD14bn of public investment already in the pipeline, CD1.5bn is approved for transit alone.

Provision for family-friendly elements such as accessible green space and daycare facilities are set to foster a sustainable community buzz in an urban downtown environment, to help discourage mid-life migration out into the suburbs.

With towards 2000 acres of largely underutilised derelict land at its disposal beside the downtown of Canada’s economic and cultural gateway and a strict policy of ‘No dig and dump’, the Waterfront project promises regeneration and remediation on a huge scale, big budget and long-term strategic basis. The initial development zone alone, the West Don Lands, featuring design to LEED Gold standard and district energy provision, will comprise: 23 acres of parks and public spaces, 25% of precinct, ,6,000 residential housing units, including 1,200 affordable, 750,000sq ft commercial space, an Elementary School, Recreation and two childcare centres – with four phases scheduled for completion in 2010. Later zones and stages of planned development stretch out as far into the future as 2035 and beyond.

Case Study 3: Evergreen Brickworks

If anywhere, Barcelona was suggested as the inspiration for the targeted LEED Platinum-level transformation of the 41-acre Don Valley Brick Works industrial-heritage site to create Evergreen Brickworks, due to open to the public in full in 2010. A social enterprise that will become home to the National Centre for Green Cities, Evergreen will function as a hub for city greening, with a market garden at its core, run by a staff of 50 (assisted by some 50 volunteers). With matters at the early-doors stage at present, the sheer scale of the development aspiration is in many ways as daunting as the pure strength of the commitment to green building and sustainable lifestyles is admirable,

Footnote

The Editor of sustain’, Jim McClelland, travelled to Toronto as a guest of the The Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, at the Government of Ontario, whom sustain’ would very much like to thank for their warm hospitality.

All flight travel was carbon offset.

Author: Jim McClelland

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